Dermal Cell System

Here you can find dermal microvascular and lymphatic epithelial cells as well as epidermal keratinocytes, epidermal melanocytes and dermal fibroblasts.

Blood vessels of the skin are composed of a number of cellular and non-cellular elements. The predominant cell type in all skin blood vessels is the endothelial cell. Endothelial cells form the interface between intravascular and extravascular compartments and serve as a selective barrier for the diffusion of cells and macromolecules between these two compartments. The endothelial cells lining blood vessels of the skin share features of endothelial cells elsewhere in the body, but they also exhibit several skin specific characteristics.

The lymphatic system serves a distinct yet complementary function within the blood vascular system in maintaining tissue homeostasis. It returns fluid and macromolecules from the tissues back into blood circulation and, thus, plays a vital role in the regulation of fluid, protein, and pressure equilibrium in tissues. Although lymphatic capillary endothelial cells have many properties in common with the endothelium of blood vessels, they also have distinct structural characteristics reflecting their specific functions.

The epithelial layer of the skin provides an essential function as a protective barrier against insult from the outside environment. The major cell type in this layer is keratinocytes which consists around 85% of living epidermal cells. The most abundant protein is keratin in the keratinocytes and they are named after that protein.

The melanocyte is a neural crest-derived cell that localizes in humans to several organs including the epidermis, eye, inner ear and leptomeninges. In the skin, melanocytes synthesize and transfer melanin pigments to surrounding keratinocytes, leading to skin pigmentation and protection against solar exposure.

Fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells derived from the embryonic mesoderm. They are one of easiest types of cells to grow in culture, and their durability makes them amenable to a wide variety of manipulations ranging from studies employing gene transfection to microinjection. There is good evidence that fibroblasts in different parts of the body are intrinsically different. Fibroblasts within tissues are exposed to a dynamic mechnical environment, which influences the structure integrity of both healthy and healing soft tissue.