Skeletal Cell System

Here you can find osteoblasts, chondrocytes, sunoviocytes, pulposus cells and fibrosus cells. You can also find medium to grow the cells as well as RNA, DNA and protein derived from these cells.

Bone is a dynamic tissue, being continuously remodeled by the coordinated actions of osteoclasts and osteoblast lineage. Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, are derived originally from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells. They synthesize and secrete organic extracellular matrix, osteoid, which is composed primarily of type I collagen. Osteoid is calcified by osteoblasts and during this process the cells become encased in lacunae within the calcified material and become osteocytes.

The anulus fibrosus makes up the peripheral portion of the intervertebral disk structure, composed of fibrocartilage and type I and II collagen. Cells of the intervertebral disc are influenced by both biophysical and mechanical factors in their local environment.Degeneration of the intervertebral disk is a major pathological process implicated in low back pain. The causes of low back pain have been suggested to involve genetic, environmental, and psychosocial factors.

Chondrocytes are the resident cells of cartilage and are responsible for synthesizing a range of collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix macromolecules. The control of proliferation and differentiation of chondrogenic cells is central to the coordinated development of the vertebrate skeleton.

Human synoviocytes, the predominant cell type of healthy synovial tissue, are fibroblast-like cells. The Synoviocytes form a distinct structure called the synovial lining layer. They produce synovial fluid components and are responsible for absorption from the joint cavity, and for blood/synovial fluid exchanges.

Nucleus pulposus is the jelly-like substance in the middle of the intervertebral disc. It functions to distribute hydraulic pressure in all directions within each disc under compressive loads. The nucleus pulposus consists of collagen fibrils, proteoglycan aggrecans and nucleus pulposus cells. The nucleus pulposus cells reside in an environment that has a limited vascular supply and generate energy through anaerobic glycolysis.